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Technical regulations for substitute building materials for use in earthworks and road construction

Technologically sound: incinerator bottom ash (IBA)

Roads and earthworks are subject to clear construction specifications. The definition of national technical regulations for road and transport systems are the responsibility of the various committees of the German Road and Transportation Research Association (Forschungsgesellschaft für Straßen- und Verkehrswesen, short FGSV). The regulations cover the areas of traffic planning, traffic management, traffic engineering, road design, road construction, road operation and road maintenance. The publications of the FGSV are generally endorsed by the German federal states. However, they can make changes so that requirements in federal states can differ slightly.

IBA is part of the official technical framework

With regard to the requirements for incinerator bottom ash in road construction and earthworks, numerous publications must be observed. In addition to the R-guidelines, the Technical delivery terms (TL), Additional technical conditions (ZTV) and Technical testing regulations (TP), which apply to all aggregates, special Technical bulletins regarding the material must also be observed.

R1 regulations
Technical delivery termsAdditional technical conditions of contractTechnical testing regulations
TL Gestein-StB 04/23 TP Gestein-StB
TL Pflaster-StB 06/15ZTV Pflaster-StB 20 
TL SoB-StB 20ZTV SoB-StB 20 
TL G SoB-StB 20/23  
TL BuB E-StB 20/23ZTV E-StB 17 
TL Asphalt-StB 07/13ZTV Asphalt-StB 07/13TP Asphalt-StB
TL Beton-StB 07ZTV Beton-StB 07TP Beton-StB
Technical bulletins
Richtlinien für die Standardisierung des Oberbaus von Verkehrsflächen (RStO)
Richtlinien für umweltverträgliche Anwendung von mineralischen Ersatzbaustoffen im Straßenbau (RuA-StB 23)
Richtlinien für die umweltverträgliche Verwertung von Ausbaustoffen mit teer-/pechtypischen Bestandteilen sowie für die Verwertung von Ausbauasphalt im Straßenbau (RuVA-StB 01)
R2 regulations
Merkblatt über die Wiederverwertung von mineralischen Baustoffen als Recyclingbaustoffe im Straßenbau (M RC)
Merkblatt über die Verwendung von Hausmüllverbrennungsasche im Straßenbau (M HMVA)
Merkblatt über Bauweisen für Technische Sicherungsmaßnahmen beim Einsatz von Böden und Baustoffen mit umweltrelevanten Inhaltsstoffen im Erdbau (M TS E)
Merkblatt über die Verwendung von Kraftwerksnebenprodukten im Straßenbau (M KNP)
Merkblatt über die Verwendung von Gießereireststoffen im Straßenbau
Merkblatt über die Verwendung von Metallhüttenschlacken im Straßenbau (M MHS)
Merkblatt über die Verwendung von Hüttenmineralstoffgemischen im Straßenbau (M HMGM)
Merkblatt über die Verwendung von Eisenhüttenschlacken im Straßenbau (M EHS)
Merkblatt über Bodenbehandlungen mit Bindemitteln (M BmB)
Merkblatt für die Verdichtung des Untergrundes und Unterbaues im Straßenbau
Merkblatt zur Wiederverwendung von Beton aus Fahrbahndecken
Merkblatt über die Verwendung von Boden ohne und mit Fremdbestandteilen im Straßenbau (M BomF)
Merkblatt für die Wiederverwendung von Asphalt (M WA)

Secondary aggregates in road construction: relevant regulations of the German Road and Transportation Research Association (FGSV)

Road design principles

Regarding the road structure, the Guidelines for the standardisation of pavement structures of traffic areas (Richtlinien für die Standardisierung des Oberbaus von Verkehrsflächen, short RStO) must be observed. The following illustration depicts a simplified road cross section. A distinction is made between the naturally existing subsoil, the subgrade and subbase and the pavement structure. The latter consists of two to three base layers, but usually at least a frost blanket layer and a base course.

The Guidelines for the standardisation of pavement structures of traffic areas (RStO) contain example cross-sections and definitions of associated terms

Assignment of load classes based on road type

The FGSV regulations distinguish construction classes. Each road is assigned to one of these construction classes depending on the traffic load. A distinction is made between classes with decreasing traffic load, starting with Bk100 (highest load, such as motorways or rural roads), followed by classes Bk10 to Bk0.3, with Bk0.3 for the lowest traffic volume, e.g. for a residential road. The load class affects, among other things, the type of construction and the structure of the road surface.

Typical design situationLoad class according to RStO 12
Open road (high-speed roads) Bk10 to Bk100
Link roadBk3.2/Bk10
Industrial site access roadBk3.2 to Bk100
Business access roadBk1.8 to Bk100
Main shopping streetBk1.8 to Bk10
Collector streetBk1.0 to Bk3.2
Residential streetBk0.3/Bk1.0
Residential pathwayBk0.3

Load classes for typical design situations

Structural suitability of IBA

From a structural point of view, incinerator bottom ash can be used as a substitute building material in the following road applications:

  • subgrade
  • hydraulic soil improvement, soil consolidation
  • dam, embankment, backfill
  • frost blanket course in load classes Bk0,3 to Bk3,2
  • base and subbase courses for roads subject to low traffic as well as cycle paths and footpaths

The environmental specifications for the use of incinerator bottom ash must be observed additionally.

Handbook on secondary aggregates

Find out more about this topic with details on structural and ecological backgrounds in our latest edition of the German Handbook on secondary aggregates. The medium, which contains all relevant information of the Secondary Aggregate Directive, is made available to interested parties as printed copy and online. more